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Citing Sources of Information

Suggested resources for citing sources correctly

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IEEE style is widely used in the fields of electrical engineering and computer science.

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IEEE resources:

IEEE has not provided guidelines on citing certain sources so there are variations of the style. The following library guides show some examples and interpretations:

Examples of in-text citations - IEEE style

IEEE format follows the numbered system in which a source is given a citation number in-text in square brackets [ ].The citation number should be put directly after the reference. Punctuation should be placed outside of the brackets. Include page number(s) if you need to be specific (e.g. direct quotes).

Bennett [1] suggested that …

As shown by Newell and Jones [2] …

Hicks et al. [3] have argued that …   Note: For six or more authors, use et al.

Recent studies [4] - [6] have proved that … (preferred)

Recent studies [4-6] have proved that … (acceptable)

In [3], [7] it was found that ... (preferred)

In [3, 7] it was found that ... (acceptable)

... according to [8].

Wood et al. [9, p. 15] claimed that "..."

Examples of reference list entries - IEEE Style

Give surnames and initials for up to five authors. When there are six or more authors, use et al.

The following examples are based on information provided in IEEE Citation References and IEEE Editorial Style Manual.

Entire book
[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year.

[1] J. A. Zalasiewicz and M. Williams, The Goldilocks Planet: The Four Billion Year Story of  Earth's Climate. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2012.

[2] R. Jain, et al., Handbook of Environmental Engineering Assessment: Strategy, Planning, and Management. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012.

Note: Capitalize all major words in the title and the subtitle. Italicize the book title. When there are six or more authors, use et al.

Book chapter

[#] A. A. Author of Part and B. B. Author of Part, "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, A. A. Editor, Eds. Location: Publisher, Year. pp. page numbers.

[3] Z. Wang and C. Brown, "Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons," in Methods in Environmental Forensics, S. M. Mudge, Ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2009, pp. 43-77.

Note: Capitalize all major words in the book title. Capitalize only the first word of the chapter title and subtitle, and any proper nouns. Italicize the book title, and enclose the chapter title in quotation marks (the puncutation goes inside the quotation marks).

Journal or newspaper article

[#] A. A. Author of Article and B. B. Author of Article, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, pp. page numbers, Abbrev. Month year. [Online]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month day, year].

 - 1. Journal article with DOI

[4] R. W. Sperry, "Science, values, and survival," J. Humanistic Psychology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 8-24, Spring 1986. doi:10.1177/0022167886262002

[5] E. V. Stanev and R. Kandilarov, "Sediment dynamics in the Black Sea: Numerical modelling and remote sensing observations," Ocean Dynam., vol. 62, pp. 533-553, Apr. 2012. doi:10.1007/s10236-012-0520-1

Note: Use accepted journal abbreviations for the journal title. Italicize the journal title. Capitalize all major words in the journal title. Capitalize only the first word of the article and subtitle, and enclose the article title in quotation marks. Issue number is not given if page numbers are continuous throughout an annual volume (i.e. issue number is given only when each new issue starts on page 1). For example, the second article above is in vol. 62, issue 4,  but issue 4 does not start on page 1. The issue number is therefore not given in the citation.

 - 2. Journal article without DOI

[5] E. V. Stanev and R. Kandilarov, "Sediment dynamics in the Black Sea: Numerical modelling and remote sensing observations," Ocean Dynam., vol. 62, pp. 533-553, Apr. 2012.

 - 3. Journal article accessibe from the Internet

[6] F. Habashi, "The case of Nobelists Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark," Chem. Ed., vol. 17, pp. 78-79, Jun. 2012. [Online].  Available: http://chemeducator.org/bibs/0017001/17100078.htm. [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].  

 - 4. Newspaper article 

[7] A. Shamdasani, "Firm strives to be lean, clean, green and energy efficient environment," South China Morning Post, p. 4, Jan. 19, 2010.

 - 5. Newspaper article from an Internet news source

[7] A. Shamdasani, "Firm strives to be lean, clean, green and energy efficient environment," South China Morning Post, p. 4, Jan. 19, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.scmp.com/article/704044/firm-strives-be-lean-clean-green-and-energy-efficient. [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].

Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis available from a database service

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of thesis," Thesis type, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., Location of University, Country/State, year. [Online]. Available: Database Name.

[8] W. Ye, "Models and algorithms for energy efficient wireless sensor networks," Ph. D. dissertation, Dept. Ind. Syst. Eng., Univ. South. Calif., Los Angeles, CA. 2007. [Online]. Available: Digital Dissertation Consortium.

Unpublished dissertation or thesis

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of thesis," Thesis type, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., Location of University, Country/State, year.

[9] H. N. Cheung, "Anomalous East Asian Winter monsoon in relation to symbolic Eurasian blocking patterns," M. Phil. dissertation, School Energy Env., City Univ. HK, Hong Kong, 2011.

Internet document

[#] A. A. Author. (year, month day). Title of Document [Format]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month day, year].

[10] S. Antipolis. (2008, Nov. 13). Essential Step Achieved in the Creation of the European Air Traffic Management Network [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/file259803.htm. [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].

[11] City University of Hong Kong. (2012). Rules on Academic Honesty: Effective from Semester A 2012/13 [Online]. Available: http://www.cityu.edu.hk/provost/academic_honesty/rules_on_academic_honesty.htm. [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].

Note: Note the distinctions between online books/journals and other Internet resources (e.g. the position of the date is different).

Online video file

[#] A. A. Author (year, month day). Title of Video [Video file]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month day, year]

[12] BirdTricks. (2008, Apr. 27). Tips for Training a Parrot to Talk [Video file]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=89dZNPPYOdk.  [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].

Online forum, blog, newsgroup

[#] A. A. Author (year, month day). Title of Post [Description of form]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month day, year]

[13] T. Rampersad (2005, Jun. 8). Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions [Blog]. Available: http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments. [Accessed: Jan. 2, 2014].

Note: Since IEEE manuals do not provide guidelines on citing certain sources, especially certain Internet resources, there are variations or different interpretations of the style. For more examples of online sources, refer to IEEE Citation References (p. 3) and IEEE Editorial Style Manual (pp. 38-40)

Citing non-English sources in English papers

A common practice is to give the original title in the reference and give the English translation in brackets.

If the source was written in a non-Latin script, such as Chinese, Japanese or Korean, transliterate the title into English alphabet. Below are two examples cited in IEEE style:

A book in French:

[1] D. Webb and C. Andre, Statistiques Economiques a Court Terme [Short-term economic statistics]. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France, 2008.

A journal article in Chinese:

[2] W. Liu, “Guanyu LibQual+ tushuguan fuwu zhiliang pingjia yu shizheng yanjiu [An empirical analysis of library service quality evaluation based on the LibQual+],” Gaoxiao Tushuguan Gongzuo, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 32-36, May 2012.

Citing Chinese sources in Chinese papers - Chinese citation styles

Chinese citation styles are generally different from English ones and there are no standardized styles. Check with your instructor for the acceptable style for your assignments. Below are some guides for reference :

研究論文格式舉要 (香港大學中文學院)

中文文稿格式 (香港教育研究所)

國家標準文後參考文獻著錄規則